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Thursday, July 31, 2014



1. Cloud computing : Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product,wherby shared resources software and indormation are provided to computers and devices as a utility over the network.
2. Blue Ray Disc : It is a optical disc storage medium to supersede the DVD formate.Blue Ray Disc are plastic disc same in size and shape as of CDs and DVDs but contain 25 GB per layer with dual layer disc providing 50 GB.
3. Simputer : It is a self-contained open hardware Linux based handheld computer.
4. DNA Computer : It uses DNA,instead of the traditional silicon based computer technology.
5. Quantum Computer : It uses the quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform operations on data.
6. Tablet PC : It is a laptop PC or Mobile PC,equipped with a stylus and/or tuch screen.
7. Bluetooth : (2.4 GHz Radi Wave) It is an open wireless technology for exchanging data over short distance.
8. iPad : It is a tablet Computer designed and developed by Apple.iPhone-5 has been recently launched by Apple.
9. Netbook : It is a branch of subnotebooks, a small,lightweight and inexpensive laptop suited for general computing and accessing web based application.
10. iPod :It is a line of portable media players created and marketed by Apple Inc.
11. Smart Phone : It is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a basic feature phone.
12. Pen Drive :It is a small device used to store files and transfer files between USB compatible system.
13. Multimedia : Multimedia is the media that uses multiple forms of information content and information processing(e.g.,text,audio,graphics animation,video) to inform or entertain the user (audience).
14. Wi MAX ( World Wide Inter operatability for Microwave Access) : Wi MAX is a wireless communication standard designed to provide 30 to 40 MB/Sec data rates,with the 2011 update providing up to 1 GB /sec.It is part of fourth generation ,4G of wireless communication technology.
15. Tuch Screen : Tuch Screen is an electronic visual display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area.< br />BIOS(Basic Input Output System) : It refers to the software code run by a computer when first powered on.
16. Cache Memory : It is used by the central processing unit to reduce the average time to access memory.
17. Plug and Play : It is a computer feature that allows the addition of a new device,normally a peripheral,without requiring reconfiguration or manual installation of device drivers.


Computer Virus

A virus is a computer programme which attaches itself to and becomes part of another executable programme and thus halts the system by leading to some undesired results.

Some Computer Virus

1982EIK Cloner
1988The Morris Internet Worm
2000I Love You
2001Code Red
2003SQL Slammer

Some popular Anti-Virus

  1. Trend Micro Anti-Virus
  2. Anti Spyware 2010
  3. Panda Security Anti-Virus Pro 2010
  4. Symantec Nortron Anti-Virus 2010
  5. Kaspersky Anti-Virus Plus
  6. MCA fee Anti-Virus
  7. Avast Anti-Virus
  8. Avira Anti-Virus



Computer networking relates to the communication between a group of two or more computer systems linked together.The network of computers can be classified into LAN,MAN and WAN based upon the area of their connectivity.
Local area Network(LAN) : It is a system in which computers can be inter-connected within a geographical spread of 1 km.All the terminals are connected to a main computer called server.
Metropolitan area Network(MAN) : It is a data network designed for a town or a city.Its main purpose is to share hardware and software resources among the carious users.e.g.,a cable TV network.
Wide area Network(WAN) : In a WAN ,the connected computers are much fat from each other and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves .Such a network may spread across countries.
Social Networking : To interact and communicate with the people accross the globe with the help of online tools i.e.,the applications availables over internet is called social networking and the websites designed specifically for this purpose are known as social networking websites.Major Social networking websites where one can make account ,share information,make friends and communicate are Facebook,Orkut,Twitter,Google+,Linked in,Badoo,Meetup,Ning etc.

Computer Terminology


1. World Wide web(WWW): This is a wrldwide system of interconnected computer files linked to one another on the Internet.
2. Client Server : It is a network architecture which separetes the client from the server.Each instance of the client software can send request to a server or application server.
3. Proxy server : Proxy server is a computer that offers a computer network service to allow clients to make indirect network connections to other network services.
4. Website : a website is a collection of web page ,typically common to a particular domain name or sub-domain on the world wide web or the internet.
5. Uniform Resource Locator : It is the another name for Web address .It is basically a string of characters which refers to a resource on the internet.Tin Berners Lee created the first URL in 1991.
6.Android : Android is an Operating system (OS) to be used for web application in mobile phones.Android is based upon a modified version of Linux Kernel.
7. E-mail : In the e-mail facility,users can send and receive mesage through the computer network ,Provided the receiver has an e-mail address.A popular protocol for sending e-mail is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) and for receiving it is POP3.

Operating System

Operating system

All operating system is a software of a series of programmes,which performs varies types of functions .In order to manage and organise files .MS windows,MS DOS,LINUS,UNIX etc. are the example of operating system.

Programming Language

A computer must be given instructions in a programming language that it understands.The only language ,a computer can directly execute is machine language.All first the programmers write the source code in a number of programming language which is further compiled into machine language by the compiler.The example of such programming language are - ALGOL,BASIC,COBOL,LOGO,COMAL,PROLOG,FORTRAN,CC++ etc.

Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is a proprietary commercial office suite of desktop applications,servers and services for the Microsoft windows and Mac OS X operating systems introduced by microsoft on August 1,1989.It contains Microsoft Word,Microsoft Excel,Micrisoft Power Point,and Microsoft Access.The current versions are office 2010 for Windows,released on June 15,2010;and office 2011 for Mac OSX,released on October 26,2010.Recently microsoft has launched the latest version of MS Windows as 'Windows-8' which is equipped with a lot of features.
MS WORD : MS word is a word processing application and is one of the most important and widely used application found on computer.
MS EXCEL : MS Excel is a spredsheet application written and distributed by microsoft for microsoft windows and Mac OSX.
MS POWER POINT : The application software that can create professional looking visual aids is called presentation grafics software.
MS ACCESS : MS access is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft JET Data base engine with graphical user interface and software development tools.

Internet And Networking

The Internet is the worldwide,publicly accessible system of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol(IP).


Connection Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor And Printer To CPU

Connecting mouse:
Mouse has three model of connectors depends on our need they are ps/2 mouse , serial mouse, USB mouse we can connect the mouse to any one of the three port depends on its model.
Connecting keyboard:
Keyboard has two model of connectors depends on our need they are ps/2 keyboard, USB keyboard we can connect the mouse to any one of the two port depends on its model.
Connection monitor:
Monitors are connected to the video port of the CPU this port is also called VGA port typically they will be in blue colour and has 15 pin female end.
Printer has two models of connectors depends of our need they are parallel port printer, USB printer we can connect the printer to any one of the two port depends on its model.
1.7.2 Checking Power Supply
The computer gets its power from the external power supply to system through SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) which acts as a AC to DC converter and step down the volts to 3 - 12 DC. The external power card is to be connected to the power supply plug in system and Power Supply Fan
Power On/Off Switch
Power Supply Plug
Ps/2 Key Board Port
Ps/2 Mouse Port
Serial Port
Video Port
USB Port
Network Port
Parallel Port
Audio Port
once the power supply on/off switch is switched on and the power switch in the front side of the system is also switched on then the power supply fan must run, if it is not running then there may be a problem of power supply, if it runs properly then we can assure that we got power to our system.

Hardware and Software

Concept of Hardware and Software

In this section we shall distinguish between hardware and software used in a Computer. There are different types of software and there are several generations.
The electronic circuits and mechanical components of a Computer such as hard disk, printers, central processing unit, keyboard, mouse, motherboard and other peripheral devices, which ere tangible in nature, or which can be felt, touched are known as hardware.
Programs namely the list of instructions to be executed by Computer is known as the software of the Computer. There are different: types of software depending on the requirement of user or Computers. Software fails into two general categories: a) System Software b) Application Software Application software
Refers to the programs, which allow the Computer to carry out specific tasks related to the users such as payroll processing, inventory control, or word processing. Application software may be supplied by the Computer manufacture or software vendors, or may be written by programmers.
System software
Controls and coordinates Computer operations, and unifies all of the Computer components into a functional and smooth running system. System software also provides the Computer users with a means of gaining access to the system and its resources. The task of translating instructions into machine code is done by a special set of software called the Compiler. Operating system prepares the computer for use and also controls the different devices attached to the computer. Operating system & Compilers are the example of system software.
Concept of Computing, Data and Information
Data is a collection of facts, such as values or measurements. It can be numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things in simple words data is a raw fact example. Representing Data in the Computer:
Basic component of Computer like CPU, RAM etc are transistors. These are made of a number of Integrated circuits (ICs), which contain transistors. These transistors set like a two-way switch which can be either on or off. These transistors have just two operating states; either on or off. When a transistor is switched on, it is said to represent the value 1. Conversely, when the transistor is switched off, it is said to represent the value 0. The values 0 and 1 are the only two digits with which Computer works.
Thus all data to be stored and processed in Computers are transformed or represented as sequence of two symbols, one symbol to represent each state. The digits 0 and 1 are represented inside the computer as electrical voltages. The electrical voltages have just two states, or levels, referred to as high and low. Usually the Low voltage represents a value of 0, while the high voltage represents a value of 1.


Computer Memory

There are different types of memories, which are used in computer. Primary memory has other names as Main memory or Random Access Memory (RAM), CPU uses it to store or retrieve data and instructions for processing. Secondary Memory or Auxiliary memory is used to store the data and instructions permanently. Hard disk and (floppy disk are the example of secondary memory. Compact Disk Read Only Memory (CD ROM) is also used to store the data permanently but St requires CD writer to store data into it. Cache memory is used to enhance the performance of Computer system.
Main Memory
Data and instructions are required to be stored in main memory from where it can be retrieved by central processing unit for processing results. Main memory serves as a temporary storage area for data and instructions. It is made up of a large number of cells, with each cell capable of storing one bit. The cells may be organized as a set of addressable words, each word storing a sequence of bits. The time to store and retrieve a word is independent of the address of the word. This organization is also called RAM or Random Access Memory. The main memory is very fast. Its storage capacity is in megabytes. Nowadays most of the Computers have minimum of 128 Mbytes of RAM. All the modern computers are now built with semiconductor main memory because of its fast access time, low cost, small physical size and low power consumption. RAM is further classified as either dynamic RAM (DRAM) or static RAM (SRAM)
The larger capacity chips are normally constructed as dynamic RAM because the dynamic RAM requires less number of transistors than the static RAM and hence can be packed more densely on a single chip. Thus dynamic RAM can achieve higher storage density. DRAM is implemented using capacitors which tend to loose their charge with time and need periodic refreshing. So, it needs extra control circuitry. This refreshing process slows down memory access speed slightly. SRAM, on the other hand, does not need any such refreshing circuitry. Thus a SRAM is faster than a DRAM. DRAM is cheaper than SRAM and consumes less power than SRAM.
Secondary Memory
The programs & data that are required to be used again & again are kept in auxiliary or secondary memory. Floppy disk, Hard disk are the examples of it. The present day capacity of Hard disk is 300 Giga bytes. Because of its relatively slow speed auxiliary storage is used for storing programs and data not immediately needed by the Computer. The programs and data are then copied into faster main memory when the Computer is ready to process them. Secondary storage devices are online to the processor. They accept data or program instructions from the processor, retain them, and then write them back to the processor as needed to complete processing tasks. Examples of Secondary memory are floppy disk, hard disk, magnetic tapes, charge-coupled devices, magnetic bubble memories, optical memories etc.
Floppy Disk
The floppy disk gets its name from the fact that it is made out of a flexible plastic material. The plastic base is coated with an iron-oxide recording substance that's similar to the material applied to the plastic ribbon of a magnetic tape. Data are recorded as tiny invisible magnetic spots on this coating. The disk is loaded and rotated inside its envelope tiny electromagnetic heads in the disk reader access the data through the slot in the jacket. A floppy disk is divided into tracks (these are a series of concentre rings on the surface of the disk) and each track is further divided into sectors. The number of tracks that a disk can hold is measured in tracks per inch (tpi) and it is always mentioned on any floppy disk you buy. A diskette is inexpensive and can be erased and reused many times.
Hard Disk
The disk described so far is the type of disks which can be removed from the disk drive and carried from place to place. Some disks however, are built into the computer or a special disk drive. These are fixed disks. They are used in just the same way as removable disks, but tend to be used for storing programs or data which have to be permanently available. Hard disks can store anywhere from 20 MB to more than 40GB. Hard disks are also from 10 to 100 times faster than floppy disk.
Magnetic Tapes
Magnetic tapes are mounted on reels or a cartridge or a cassette of tape to store large volumes or backup data. These are cheaper and since these are removable from the drive, they provide unlimited storage capacity. Since the recording is like that in a tape recorder used in audio systems, information retrieval will be only sequential and not random as in the case of a disk. These are not suitable for online retrieval of data, since sequential searching will take long time. These are convenient for archival storage for backup.
The CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory) is a direct extension of audio CD. CD-ROM players are more rugged and have errorcorrection facility. This ensures proper data transfer from CD-ROM to the RAM of the computer. CD-ROM is written using a CD writer. Information is retrieved from a CD-ROM using a low power laser, which ingenerate in an on optical disk drive unit. In CD-ROMs the information is stored evenly across the disk in segments of the same size. Therefore, in CD-ROMs data stored on a track increases as we go towards outer surface of disk. Thus, the CD-ROMs are rotated at variable speeds for the reading process.
Cache Memory
CPU speed is quite high as compared to the access time of main memory. In many situations, the performance of the processor suffers because of the low speed of the main memory. This problem is solved by placing small fast memory called cache memory between the processor and the main memory whose access time is close to the processing speed of the CPU. Cache memory is faster than the main memory. The cache memories although are fast yet are very expensive memories and are used in only small size. Thus, small cache memories are intended to provide fast speed of memory retrieval without sacrificing the size of memory. Cache memory stores a copy of the instructions and data to be immediately used of main memory. The memory reads or writes operation is first checked with cache memory and if the desired location data is available in cache memory then used by the CPU directly.

Output Device

Other Output Devices

An output device is a part of the computer system which is used to show results. Output devices convert information from the electronic form used by the Computer into a form that people can easily work with. Output normally can be produced in two ways; either on a display unit or on a paper. Other kinds of output such as speech output, mechanical output are also being used in certain applications. Printer receives data from the Computer and translates the data into a printed document. The same data could also be displayed on the video display unit. The method of output used depends often on whether the user wants the output to be permanent and on paper or not. Let us discuss some of the common output devices.
Display Devices
One of the most important peripherals in computer is the display device. Graphic display is made up of a series of dots called 'pixels' (picture elements) whose pattern produces the image. Each dot on the screen is defined as a separate unit, which can be directly addressed. Since each dot can be controlled individually there is much greater flexibility in drawing pictures. There are three categories of display screen technology;
1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
2. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
3. Projection Displays
CRT Displays
The CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitor receives video signals from the computer and displays the video information as dots on the CRT screen. The main unit to the CRT monitor is the CRT itself; it is usually called a picture tube. The CRT is an evacuated glass tube with a fluorescent(phosphor) coating on the inner front surface, called screen. An electron gun at one end (neck) emits an electron beam. This beam is directed towards the screen. When the beam strikes the screen, the phosphor coating on the screen produces Illumination at the spot where the electron beam strikes.
The electron beam is deflected by an electromagnetic deflection in order to produce illumination at various spots on the screen. Horizontal deflection coils deflect the beam in the horizontal direction and the vertical deflection coils deflect the beam in the vertical direction. The illumination caused on the screen exists for a few milliseconds due to the persistence of the phosphor. To create a permanent image on the screen, it is necessary to cause illuminations repeatedly. This is done by scanning the CRT screen with the electron beam.

There are two types of CRT displays:

1. Vector CRT displays in which the electron beam is directed only to the places where the image is to be created.
2. Raster Scan displays in which the image is projected on to the screen by directing the electron beam across each row of picture elements from the top to the bottom of the screen, This type of display provides a high dynamic capability since image is continuously refreshed and it allows for continual user input and output. It offers full colour display at a relatively low cost and is becoming very popular.
Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)
First introduced in watches and clocks in 1970s, LCD is now applied to display devices of a computer. The major advantage of LCD is the low energy consumption. The CRT is replaced by liquid crystal to produce the image. These also have colour capability but the image quality is relatively poor. First introduced in watched and clocks in1970s, LCD is now applied to display devices of a computer. The major advantage of LCD is the low energy consumption. The CRT is replaced by liquid crystal to produce the image. These also have colour capability but the image quality is relatively poor.
Projection Displays
A large screen upon which images are projected replaces the personal size screen of the previous displays. These are normally used for large group presentation. These systems can be connected to computer and whatever appears on the computer terminal gets enlarged and projected on e large screen. Another popular method is to connect computer to an LCD flat screen and to project the LCD image using Overhead Projector. These are popularly used for seminars, classrooms, marketing presentations, etc.
Terminal is a combination of Input unit and Output unit like VDU and keyboard. Terminals have become very popular interactive input and output units. With the help of a terminal data and instructions can directly be sent into the computer. Terminals can be classified into two types, namely hard copy terminals and soft copy terminals. A hard copy terminal provides a printout on paper where a soft copy terminal provides a visual display on screen. A soft copy terminal is also known as a CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) terminal. Terminals are also classified as dumb terminals or intelligent terminals depending upon provision for any intelligence or otherwise as the terminal. Current technology has brought about a low price differential between intelligent and dumb terminals. This encourages use of intelligent terminals.
Printer is a very common and popular output device. It accepts text and graphic output from a computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheet of paper. Printed output provides permanent record and is easy to copy and distribute. Familiar, computer printed documents include pay slips, Familiar, computer printed documents include pay slips, bank statements electricity bills, etc. Different types of printers with different brand names are available in the market. They vary in size, speed, sophistication, and cost. Generally we divide printers into two categories: impact and non-impact.
Impact Printers
Impact printers are printers that create characters by striking a print page with a print hammer (like in typewriter). The impact printers developed for use with computers work in much the same way as typewriters.
1. Dot Matrix Printer
This is also a character printer. In the dot-matrix printer, an arrangement of tiny hammers strikes to produce the desired characters. Each hammer prints a small dot on the paper.
2. Line Printer
It prints a line at a time. In the line printer, raised characters extend the length of the drum. There are as many bands of type as there are printing positions.. Each band contains all the possible characters. The drum rotates rapidly, and one revolution is required to print each line. A fast acting hammer opposite each band strikes the paper against the proper character as its passes. Thus, in one rotation, hammers of several positions may “fire” when the A row appears, several others may strike to imprint D's, etc. At the end of the rotation, the line has been printed.
Non Impact Printers
As their name implies, non-impact printer employ some process other than hammers or similar"percussion type'' mechanisms to form characters on a print page. It uses techniques such as ink spray, heat, Xerography or laser to form printed copy, i.e., characters are not formed by mechanical impact. Usually, non-impact printers are quieter than impact printer. 1. Inkjet Printer
It is a non-impact character printer. It fires a fine jet of dots of quick drying ink onto the paper to form character or dot graphics by using an electrostatic field. When Continuous stream inkjet printers are used, droplets of ink are electronically charged after leaving a nozzle. The droplets are then guided to the proper position on the paper by electrically charged deflection plates. The print quality is good because the character is formed by dozens of tiny dots.
2. Laser Printers
They are page printers, i.e., print a whole page at a time. Laser printers write the desired output image on a copier drum with a light beam that operates under computer control. A difference in a electric charge is created on those parts of the drum surface exposed to the laser beam. These laser-exposed areas attract a toner that attaches itself to the laser generated charges on the drum. The toner is then permanently fused on the paper with heat or pressure.

Input Device of PC

The central processing unit (CPU) is where the actual processing takes place. This is where the calculations are performed and logical functions are carried out. The CPU retrieves its data and instructions from the main memory, processes the data according to the instructions and then stores the results back into the main memory or sends the processed information to the output subsystem. There are broadly three parts of Central Processing Unit. Control Unit controls all the operations in computer. All the arithmetic and logic operations are performed in Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). A set of registers is used for temporarily storing data or instructions in CPU. It is to be noted that the central processor is controlled by the instructions it gets from main memory. The CPU retrieves and executes these instructions one by one until it completes a given task. Each instruction tells the CPU what to do (add, divide, move, and compare) and also tells it where to find the data to be processed. CPU, memory all other components are connected through buses on Motherboard and are housed in a cabinet or system unit. The bus interconnects the different parts of the Computer so that information can move from one part of the Computer to another. In effects, the bus is a "highway'' over which electrical signals can travel. For example when the CPU retrieves an instruction from the main memory the electrical pulses representing that instructions are carried over the bus that connects the CPU and main memory. There are three different types of Buses used in Computer. These are Address bus, Data Bus and Control Bus.

Keyboard, Mouse and VDU

To solve a problem it is necessary to give data and instructions to the Computer. This can be done through input device. The keyboard is an example of an input device that accepts data and translates it into electronic signals. Both program (instructions) and data can be keyed in through it. In addition, certain commands to software can be given from the keyboard.
The keyboard consists of a set of keys. There is one key switch for each letter, number, symbol etc, much like a typewriter. Most common keyboard is called QWERTY keyboard as the alphabets in the first row are placed like commonly used typewriters. When a key is pressed, the key switch is activated. The keyboard has an electronic circuit to determine which key has been pressed. A code is then generated and sent to the computer. For example when you press the alphabet A on the keyboard, it is translated into the electronic code 0100001, which is sent to the Computer. Similarly, the number 0 is translated into the electronic code 00111001. So keyboard is one way to get data into the Computer. Detecting which key is pressed and generating the corresponding code is known as encoding. ASCII (American Symbolic Code for Information Interchange) is one such commonly used code.
Mouse is a pointing device which can be moved on a smooth surface to simulate the movement of cursor that is desired on the display screen. Mouse could be optical; offering quite and reliable operation, or mechanical which is cheaper. User can move the mouse; stop it at a point where the pointer is to be located and, with the help of buttons, and make selection of choices. The mouse is not an alternative to the keyboard for entering data. Text and numbers still have to be keyed in, but selection from menus and drawings are easier with a mouse. There are 2 keys, 3 keys and scrolling facilities available in mouse.
One need to see which key is pressed, and makes changes in case of any mistakes. Whatever one has keyed in gets displayed on the screen of the monitor also known as video display unit (VDU). It is also used to show the Information produced by the computer. Most display screens of a monitor work under the same principle as a television, using a cathode ray tube (CRT). Consequently, the term CRT is often used in place of display screen. There are many ways to classify monitors. The most basic are in terms of colour, its screen size and the resolution. First two types are very explicit. The resolution of a monitor indicates how densely packed the pixel (often expressed in dots per inch) are. In general, the more pixels mean the sharper the image. VGA (video graphics array) or SVGA (Super VGA) monitors are most frequently used Monitors today. Both these terms generally refer to the resolution capabilities of the monitor. Most modern monitor’s can display 1024 by 768 pixels, the SVGA standard. Some high-end models can display 1280 by 1024, or even 1600 by 1200. The older Monitor types were MDA (monochrome display adapter), CGA (colour graphics adapter), and EGA (enhanced graphics adapter). These are now outdated and do not work with newer versions of Windows operating system,

Other Input Devices

Data can be fed into a Computer through input devices. Input devices accept data in its original format and translate the data into electronic signals the Computer can process.
Pointing Devices
While working with display based packages, we are mostly pointing to some area in the display to select an option and move across on the screen to select subsequent options. For such cases pointing devices are very useful. There are several pointing devices, some of them are light pen, track balls and joysticks.
Light Pen
This is a pen shaped device allowing natural movement on the screen. The pen contains the Light receptor and is activated by pressing the pen against the display screen. Receptor is the scanning beam, which helps in locating the pen's position. Suitable system software is provided to initiate necessary action when we locate an area on the display surface with the help of the light pen. There are other pointing devices such as track balls and joysticks, which are used more for entertainment applications like games.
Voice / Speech Input
One of the most exciting areas of research is in recognizing human voices / speech so that this could form input to computer directly. This approach will eliminate the need for keying in data and will facilitate casual users to use the computer very easily. There are several problem areas for research since speech recognition system should be able to identify who is speaking and what the message is. Voice recognition techniques along with several other techniques to convert the voice signals to appropriate words and derive the correct meaning of words are required for a commercially viable comprehensive speech recognition system. We have found limited success in this area and today devices are available commercially to recognize and interpret human voices within limited scope of operation.
Scanners facilitate capturing of the information (an image, text document, a drawing or a photograph) and storing them in graphic format for displaying back on the graphical screen. Scanner illuminates the page that is to be scanned so that optical image transforms into digital format for stored in computer. The graphic image scanned can now be seen and processed directly by the computer. Scanners come in handheld, feed-in and flat bed types and for scanning black and white only or colour.
Source Data Automation
We can also collect data directly from different sources rather than typing with the help of different devices. This is called source data automation. Most recent trends for data input are towards source data automation. The equipment used for source data automation captures data as a by product of a business activity thereby completely eliminating manual input of data.

Some examples are:

1.Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): These devices are generally used by the banking industry to read the account numbers on cheques directly and do the necessary processing.
2.Optical Mark Recognition (OMR): These devices can sense marks on computer readable papers. Academic and testing institutions to grade aptitude tests where candidates mark the correct alternatives on a special sheet of paper use this kind of device. The optical mark recognition devices then directly read these answers sheets and the information sent to a computer for processing. The entrance tests and some of the assignments are being marked by OMR. 3.Optical Bar Code Reader (OBR): These scans a set of vertical bars of different widths for specific data and are used to read tags and merchandise in stores, medical records, library books, etc. These are available as hand held devices.



A computer is an electronic device that can receive a set of instruction or programme,and then carry out this programme by performing calculate on numerical data or by manipulating other forms of information.
What is Computer?
Computer derives its name from the word Compute that means calculation. It can be said that Computer is a device used for calculation. Nowadays Computer is not only limited to computation, but also used for making phone calls, maintaining databases, listening songs, viewing movies etc, so a more formal definition of Computer is required. Computer is an electronic device that processes or transforms data into useful information by executing a series of predefined instructions.
Input---->Processing Unit-->Memory<-- ---->Out Put---->

Generations of Computer
GenerationPeriodMain Electronic componentsMain computerOperating system
I1945-56Vacuum Tubes,Flip-FlopsUNIVAC,ENIACMainly Batch Operating system
II1956-63TranslatorsIBM-700,IBM-1401Time sharing Operating system
III1964-71Integrated Circuits(ICS)IBM-1620,ATLAS,ICL-1901,IBM-360,IBM-370Real Time and Time sharing Operating system
IV1971-PresentMicro processors(LSI-Large scale Integration)NCR-395,CDC-1700,Apple,DCMTime Sharing Networks
VPresent and BeyondOptical fibre,artificial Intelligence(VLSI and VVLSI-Very Very Large Scale Integration)-----------------------


Componants of Computer

Components of Computer System

  1. Input devices
  2. Memory unit
  3. Output devices

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Skeleton system

Skeleton system

The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported and supplemented by ligaments,tendons,muscles and cartilage.It is divided into two parts :
Axial Skeleton(80 bones):It includes skull,vertebral column and bones of chest.The total number of bones of head 29.The total number of bones in vertbral column,initially 33 and after development 26.
Appendicular Skeleton(126 bones): Their function are to make locomotion possible.

Protozoan diseases

Protozoan Diseases,Their Vectors and affected Part

DiseasesPathogenVectorParts affected and symptom
PyorrhoeaEntamoeba gingivalisNone,infection by lip kissingBleeding of gums
African trypanosomiasisTrypanosoma gambienseTse-Tse flyBlood and nervous tissue.Man feel sleepy,may cause death
Amoebic DysenteryEntamoeba histolyticaNone,infection by contaminationColon,develop loose motion with blood,pain in abdomen
DiarrhoeaGiardiaNone,infection by contaminationDigestive system causes loose motion,vomiting
Kala azarLeishmania donovaniSend fliesSpleen and liver enlarge and high fever
FilariaWuchereriaCulex mosquitoSwelling legs ,testes and other body parts
MalariaPlasmodium spFemale Anopheles mosquitoPeriodical attacks of high fever,pain in joints,accompanied by chill,heavy perspiration and fast pulse.

Viral disease

Viral diseases in Human Beings

DiseasePathogenAffected PartSymptom
MeaslesRubella virusWhole bodyLoss of appetite ,reddish eruption on the body
Chicken poxVericella virusWhole bodyHigh fever,reddish eruption on body
Small poxVariola virusWhole bodyLight fever,eruption of bile on body
PolioPolio virusThroat backbone and nerveFever,backbone and intestinewall cells are destroyed .It leads to paralysis.
InfluenzaInfluenza virusWhole bodyInflammation of upper respiratory tract,nose and eyes.
RabiesRNA virus called Rabies virusNervous systemEncephalitis ,fear of water,high fever,headache,spasm of throat and chest leading to death
Dengue FeverRNA containing Dengue virusWhole body,particularly head eyes and jointsHigh fever,backache,headache,retro-orbital pain behind the eye ball.
HepatitisHepatitis A virusLiverLoss of appetite,nausea,whitish stool and jaundice
AIDSHuman Immuno deficiency virusWhite Blood cellWeak Immuno system
HerpesHerpes virusSkinSwelling of skin

Human Becterial Disease

Bacterial diseases in Human Beings

DiseasePathogen(Bacteria)Affected OrganSymptoms
TuberculosisMycobacterium tuberculosisLungsRepeated caughing high fever
DiphtheriaCorynebacterium diphtheriaeRespiratory tractDifficulty in respiration(mainly in child of age 2-5 years)
Whooping cough or pertussisBacillus pertussisRespiratory systemContinuous coughing
CholeraVibrio choleraeIntestineVomiting,acute diarrhoea,muscular cramps,dehydration etc.
Tetanus(lock jaw)Clostridium tetaniCentral nervous systemPainful contraction of neck and jaw muscles followed by paralysis of thracic muscles
PneumoniaDiplococcus pneumoniaeLungsSudden chill.chest pain,cough,high fever and lung swelling
TyphoidSalmonella typhiIntestineHigh fever,diarrhoea,headache and gastro intestinal disorder
SyphilisTreponema pallidumUrinary pathWonds in urinogenital tract.

Human Diseases

Human Diseases

A disease is a condition of the body or its part in which functions are disterved or deranged.

  1. Bacterial Diseases
  2. Viral Diseases
  3. Protozoan Diseases

Endocrine system

Endocrine system

It includes endocrine or ductless glands.Their secretion is known as hormones.Different type of hormones are :
1.Steroids : e.g.,estradiol,testosterone,androsterone,aldosterone,cortisol,and cortisone.
2.Peptides : insulin,glucagon,pituitary hormones,parathormone and relaxin.
3.Amino acid derivatives : Adrenaline,noradrenaline and thyroid hormones.Pituitary gland is also known as master gland.

Some Endocrine Glands :
Thyroid Gland : It is the largest endocrine gland and situated in neck region.It is the pace setter of the endocrine system .It secretes thyroxine.
Gonads : It secretes steroid hormones.
Ovarian hormones(Oestrogens): It helps in the development of primary and secondary sexual characters.
Testicular Hormones(Androgens) : These are produced by Leydig's cells of testes.It stimulate growth ,maturation and maintenance of male gonads and development of secondary sexual characters,e.g. testosterone,androsterone,etc.

Effect of Deficiency and Excess of Hormones

Thyroxine Secretion : Lower secretion causes cretinism (young),Hashimoto's disease and myxoedema in adult.Higher secretion causes exophthalmic goitre.Lack of iodine in the diet causes goitre.
Parathomone Secretions : Lower secretion causes tetany,Higher secretion causes neurofibromatosis.
Growth stimulating Hormones Secretions : Lower secretion caused Dwarfism in young,Higher secretion caused gigantism in adult.LTH helps formation of crop milk in birds.Let down reflax or milk ejection response.
Insulin Secretion : Lower secretion leads ti diabetes mellitus.Aldosterone hypersecretion causes Conn's syndrome.Cortisol oversecretion causes Cushing's syndrome.

Reproductive system

Reproductive System

The process by which new individuals are produced from their parents is called reproduction and the organs which are used for this process ,collectively constitute the reproductive system .Reproduction is of two types i.e.,asexual and sexual.In asexual reproduction ,only one parent is involved and sex cells are not involved ,e.g.,frog,hydra etc.In sexual reproduction,two parents are involved and formation and fusion of gametes takes place.

Male Reproduction system

Males can produce spermatozoa(sperm)throughout their life from age of 13-14 years.The various organs which constitute the male reproductive system and their functions are tabulated below.

Reproductive OrganNumberFunction
Testes2Produce sperm and testosterone
Sperm duct2Conduct the sperm from the testes to urethra
Seminal vesicles 2Secret seminal plasma
Prostate gland2Secret an alkaline fluid to neutralize the acidity of urethra and make the spermative
Penis(urethra)(have rich blood supply)1Pass urin and deposite sperm in female genital track

Female Reproductive System

Female reproductive system includes following organs which are tabulated below.

Reproductive OrganNumberFunction
Ovaries2To produce ova and hormones
Oviducts2To move the ovum towards uterus
Uterus1To provide space for developing child
Vagina1To receive the sperm

If sperm is present ,the egg will be fertilized in the fallopian tube.After maturity the ovary release on ovum after every 28 days.The connection between developing embryo and mother is by placenta.It supplies blood ,etc.Reproductive period of a human female extends from puberty(10-14 years)to menopause(40-50 years)Menopause is stopping of ovulation and menses .It normally occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 .In this stage,woman lose the ability to reproduce.

Nervous system

Nervous system

The nervous system provides the fastest means of communication within the body so that suitable response to stimuli can be made at once.Central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord.The function of some of these parts are as follows :
1.Thalamus deals with pain,presure and temperature.
2.Hypothalamus deals with water balance is body,behavioural patterns of sex,sleep,stress,emotions,etc.It also regulates pituitary hormones and metabolism of fat,carbohydrate and water.
3.Spinal cord deals with impulses to and from the brain and is the centre for reflax actions like blinking of the eye when an object comes near to our eyes suddenly ,Rapid withdrawal of hand while burned,knee jerk reflax ,etc.

Sense Organ

Eye : Eyes are the sensitive detectors of light .The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colours.It consists three parts :
Sclerotic Layer : It is the outermost ,bony layer ,which includes-cornea and conjunctiva.
Choroid Layer : It is the middle layer and consists of
(1)Pupil is the black hole in the centre of the changes size as the amount of light changes.
(2)Iris is the coloured part of the eye.It controls the amount of light that enters the eye by changing the size of the pupil.
(3)Lens is a biconvex transparent circular solid located just behind the iris .It focuses light onto the retina.
Retina : Light sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye.It contains millions of Photoreceptors(rod and cones)That convert light rays into electrical impulses that are relayed to the brain via the optic nerve.The image formed on retina is real and inverted.Rods are highly sensitive to dim light.Cones are sensitive to bright light ,hence differentiated the colours.

Eye Defects

Nearsightedness(Myopia) : A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because light is focused in front of the retina,not on it.It can be corrected by using concave glasses.
Farsightedness(Hypermetropia) : a condition in which distant objects are seen more clearly than nearby objects because light is focused behind the retina ,not on it.It can be corrected by using convex glasses.
Astigmatism : A condition in which the lens is wraped causing images not to focuse properly on the retina.A cylindrical glasses can correct the defect.


Ears are meant for both balancing and hearing.Hearing is controlled by auditory area of temporal lobe of cerebral cortex.Human ear can hear the sound of 60-80 decibel.Human ear is sensitive to sound s frequency 50-20,0000 cycles/sec

Excretory system

Excretory System

The process of removal of nitrogenous wastes from the body is called excretion .The organs of excretion are called excretory organs.

Human Excretory System

The human urinary system includes-the kidneys(two),Ureters(two)Urinary bladder(one)and urethra(one)
Kidney from the urine and controls osmatic pressure within the organism with respect to external environment.
Urin : It is yellow coloured fluid due nto presence of urochrome pigment.It is acidic in nature (pH 6.0) and is slightly heavier than water.It has a faint aromatic odour due to Urinoid.Daily urin output in normal adult is 1.5-1.8 L.Chemical composition of urine water is 95-96%,urea is 2% and some other substance like uric acid,creatinine,etc. are 2-3 %.

Circulatory System

Circulatory system

It is a transport system to supply the useful material and to remove the wastes from the body cells.


Heart is a thick muscular,contractile automatic pumping organ of blood vascular system.The chamber which receive s the blood from body tissues are called auricles and the chambers of heart which pump blood to body tissues are called ventricles.
human heart beat is myogenic in nature,i.e.,initiated by a patch of modified heart muscles itself without requiring an external stimulation .This patch is called SA node (sino-auricular)or pacemaker.
When SA node becomes defective,i.e.,it does not generate cardiac impulse ,it can be cured by surgical grafting of an artificial pacemaker(an electric device) in the chest of the patient.It stimulate the heart electrically at regular intervals.

Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are of three types.
1.Arteries : These carry the blood away from the heart to various body parts.These carry oxygeneted(pure) blood in them.except the pulmonary artery which carries de-oxygenated blood to the lungs.
2.Veins : These carry blood away from various body aparts of the heart.These carry de-oxygenated blood in them except the pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood to the heart.
3.Capillaries : These are the thinnest blood vessels and connect arteries to the veins.These help in exchange of materials like the nutrients,gases waste products etc.Beyween blood and cells.
Blood : Blood is fluid connective tissue and composed of blood corpuscles,Plasma and plateletes.It is slightly alkaline in nature (pH7.4)Itas volume in an adult in 5.8 L.

Respiratory system

Human Respiratory system

The human respiratory organs are shown in the following diagram.
Overall passage of air in human is as follows:
Breathing rate in human = 18-20/min.Transportation of oxygen takes place by haemoglobin of blood.Whereas transportation of only 10-20% carbon dioxide takes place by haemoglobin of blood.

Digestive System


Digestive system

The human digestive system have following parts which are shown ahead.
TEETH : With the help of teeths the food is chewed.Teeths are of four types.1.Incisors(for cutting)2.Canines(for tearing)3.Premolars(for chewing)4.Molars(for chewing and grinding)
Hardest part in the body is tooth enamel.
Tongue : Tongue contains taste buds due to which we sense bitter,sour,salty and sweet taste.Man and other animals have holozoic nutrition,i.e.,solid form of mouth ,salivery amylase acts on starch and converts it into maltose.Pepsin digests proteins and converts them into peptones.Renin converts milk to curd.trypsin acts upon proteins and breaks them into polypeptides.Lactose converts sucrose into glucose.Trypsin digests the peptides into amino acids.

Some digestive Glands

Liver : It is the largest gland of the human body and secretes bile juice,which is stored in gallbladder.It regulates the quantity of glucose in the blood,destroy died RBC,regulate body temperature and converts excess of amino acid into ammonia.
Pancreas : It is the second largest gland of the human body and contains islets of Langerhans.The most common istel cell,the ß-cells secretes insulin a hormone deficiency of which causes diabetes.

System of Human body

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Classification of Animals

Classification of Animals

Storer and Usinger classified animals into following phylums.

PHYLUM-PROTOZOA : These are unicellular animals,i.e.,made up of only one cell.Example - Amoeba,Paramecium,Euglena.
PHYLUM-PORIFERA : These have porous body.Their skeleton is made up of minute calcareous or silicon spices.Example-Sycon,Sponge,etc.
PHYLUM-COELENTERATA : They have specialized cnidoblast cell to help in catching the food.Example-Hydra,Jelly fish,sea Anemone,etc.
PHYLUM-PLATYHELMINTHES : They have no skeleton,respiratory organ,circulatory system,etc.These are hermaphrodite animal.Example-Planaria,Liver fluke,Tap worm etc.
PHYLUM-ASCHELEMINTHES : These are long cylindrical unsegmented worm.Most form are parasitic but some are free living in soil and water.Example-Ascaris,Thread worm etc.
PHYLUM-ANNELIDA : Their body is long,thin soft and metamerically segmented.Nervous system is normal and blood is red.Example-Earth worm,Nereis,Leech,etc.Earth worms is five pairs of hearts.
PHYLUM-ARTHROPODA : Jointed leg is their main feature.Circulatory system is open type. cockroach's heart has 13 chambers.Examples-Cockroach,Prawn,Crab,Bug,Fly Mosquto,Bees.etc.
PHYLUM-MOLLUSCA : Their body is soft divided into head and Muscular foot,Blood is colourless.Example-Pila,Aplysia,Doris,Octopus,Sepia.
PHYLUM-ECHINODERMATA : All the animals in this group are marine and have a special capacity of regeneration.Example-Star fish,Sea urchin,Sea cucumber.
PHYLUM-CHORDATA : They have notochord ,a dorsal hollow tubular nerve cord and paired pharyngeal gill slits.Some chordates are :-
1.Pisces - These are aquatic animal (cold blooded animal).Respiration takes place through gills.Example-Hippopotamus,Scoliodon,Torpedo etc.
2.Amphibia-These are found both on land and water.all these are cold -blooded.Respiration takes place through gill,skin and lungs.Example-Frog,Toad,Salamander.
3.Reptilia-These are crawling animals.These are cold-blooded and contains two pair of limbs.Their eggs are covered with shell made up of calcium carbonate.Example-Lizard,Snake,Tortoise,Crocodile,Trutle,Sphendom,etc.
4.Aves-The animals of this groupsare warm-blooded tetrapod vertebrates with flight adaptation.Their four feet are modified into wings to fly.Example-Crow,Peacock,Parrot,etc.
5.Mammalia - These are warm-blooded animals.Tooth comes twice in these animal.There is no nucleus in its red blood cells(except in camel and lima)

Theories of Evolution

Theories of Evolution

LAMARCKISM : Lamarck give the idea that an organism can pass on characteristics that it acquired during its lifetime to its offspring .
Lamarck's theory of evolution was published in Philosophie Zoology
DARWINISM : Darwin's theory of evolution was Origin of Species by Natural Selection and it was published in 1859.
MUTATION THEORY : Hugo de Vries proposed the theoy of mutation.Mutation are discontinuous variation.These are due to changes in chromosomes genes and DNA and may or may not be inherited.

Origin of life

Origin of Life

The first scientific account of the origin of life was given by Russian scientist AI Oparin in his book 'Origin of Life'.
The primitive atmosphere contained hydrogen,Methane,Ammonia and water vapour.In it Oxygen and Ozone were absent.Thus it was believe that life is originated from inorganic substances by a series of complex reaction.This is also supported by Miller and Urey in 1953.

Organic Evolution

More and more creation of organism by gradual changes from low categories animal to higher animal is called organic evolution.These are several evidence regarding organic evolution.

Homologous Organs

The organs which similar in basic and origin but similar or dissimilar in functions are called Homologous organs,e.g.,wings of bat,cats paw,front foot of horse,humans hand and wings of birds are homologous organs.

Analogous Organs

These are developed in organism widely different phylogenetically due to similar habitats and moodes of life,e.g., wings of insects,birds and bats ,eyes of octopus and mammals are analogous organs.

Vestigial Organs

These are degenerate,non-functional organs which were functional earlier.
Human body has been discribed to possess about 90 vestigial organs.Some of these are muscles,eat pinna,canine,teeth and third molar teeth,body hairs,membrane of eyes,caudal vertebral etc.

Evidence from Connecting Links

Connecting link is one which exhibit characteristic of more than one groups.

Intermediate Forms between Two Groups of Organisms.

OrganismConnecting Link Between
VirusLiving and non-living
Euglena(protozoa)Non-chordata and Chordata
Dipnoi(lung fish)Pisces and Amphibia
ArchaeopteryxReptiles and Aves
BalanoglossusPlants and Animal
PrototheriaReptiles and Mammal


Sunday, July 27, 2014

Vitamin and Minerals


It was invented by FG Hopkins.However ,the term Vitamin was coined by C Funk.
These are divided into two groups:
Fat soluble vitamins,viz.vitamin-A,D,E and K
Water soluble vitamin viz.vitamin-B and C
Vitamin D is synthesised in our skin by the action of ultraviolet rays of the sun.

Vitamin,their Deficiency Disease and Sources

VitaminChemical NamesDeficiency DiseaseSource
Vitamin-ARatinol carotenoidsNight-blindness,Hyperkeratosis,Keratomalacia,Orange,green vegetables,carrots,pumpkin,squash,and spinach
Vitamin-DCalciferolRickets and OsteomalaciaFish,eggs,liver and mushrooms
Vitamin-ETocopherols,tocotrienplsLess fertilityMany fruits and vegetables
Vitamin-KPhylloquinone,Non-clotting of bloodGreen vegetables
Vitamin-B1ThiamineBeriberi,Wernicke-Korsakoff syndromeOatmeal,rice,vegetables,cauliflower,potato,liver and eggs.
Vitamin-B2RiboflavinCracking of skin,reddish eye,cracking of tongueDairy products,bananas,popcorn,and green beans.
Vitamin-B3Niacin or nicotinic acidPellagera,GlossitisMeat,broccoli,avocados
Vitamin-B5Pentothenic acidPremature graying of hair,Burning feet syndromemeat,fish ,eggs,many vegetables,mushrooms and tree nuts
Vitamin-B6PirodoxineAbnormal protein metabolismMeat,vegetables,tree nuts and banana
Vitamin-B7BiotinDermatitis enteritis and anaemiaRaw egg yolk,liver,peanuts and vegetables.
Vitamin-B9Folic acid,folinic acidMegaloblast and in pregnant birth degects,such as neural tube defectLeafy vegetables,pasta,bread,cereal and liver
Vitamin-B12CyanocobalaminPernicious anaemiaMeat and other animal products
Vitamin-CAscorbic acidScurvyPeppers,citrus fruits and sprouts.

Mineral Nutrients

These are metals,non-metals and their salts other than the four elements-carbon,hydrogen,nitrogen and oxygen and constitute about 4% of total body weight.
Minerals are of two types :
1.Macronutrients: These are required in large amount,e.g.,calcium(Ca)Phosphorus(P),Potassium(K),etc.
2.Micronutrients: These are required in very small amount(less than 1 g)e.g.,iodine(I),iron(Fe),zinc(Zn) etc.

Minerals and their function in the body

Micronutrient elements

MineralMajor Food SourcesNeeded forDeficiency Disease
Calcium(C)Milk,Cheese,Bread and VegetablesMuscle contraction ,nerve action,blood clotting and the formation of boneTetany and Rickets
Phosphorous(P)Cheese,Eggs,Pea Nuts and most FoodsBone and tooth formation ,energy transfer from foods DNA,RNA,and ATP formation.Tetany and Rickets
Potassium(K)Potatoes,Meat and Chocolatemuscle contraction,nerve action and active transportNervous disorder ,a poor muscles leading to paralysis
Iron(Fe)Liver,Kidney,Red meat,Cocoa powder and water -cressFormation of Haemoglobin,Mioglobin and CytochromesAnaemia and low immunity
Fluorine(F)Water Supplies,Tea,Sea food,Meat,Liver and BeansResistance to tooth decayWeak teeths causes motting of teeths
Iodine(I)Seafood,Iodized salt and fishThyroxine productionGoitre
Cobalt(Co)Meat and YeastSynthesis of Vitamin-B12 formation of Red Blood CellsAnaemia


About 70% of the human body consists of water.Two -third of water exists inside cells ,the other one-third is outside the cells in tissue fluid and blood plasma.It is essential for digestion,transportation,excretion and to regulate body temterature.



Biomolecules are the substance that are essential for a living being to perform the basic function ,e.g., carbohydrate,protein,lipids(fats),nucleic acids,vitamins,minerals and water.


These are the organic compounds of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen.These are the polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones or their derivatives.
These are the source of energy and about 50-75% energy is obtained by the oxidation of carbohydrates.
The main ene product of carbohydrate digestion is glucose, which is called blood sugar.
Main source of carbohydrates are wheat,mize,rice,potato etc.
The carbohydrates are divided into three types:1.Monosaccharides 2.Oligosaccharides and 3.Polysaccharides


These are simple sugars,which cannot be hydrolysed further,e.g.,ribose,glucose,fructose,galactose,etc.


They release 2-10 monosaccharides on hydrolysis.
These may be disaccharides,e.g.,maltose,trisaccharides,e.g.,raffinose etc.
Sucrose is malso called invert sugar .It gives glucose and fructose,when subjected to hydrolysis.


They release more than ten monosaccharides on hydrolysis.These are non-sugar,i.e.,do not have sweet taste,e.g.,cellulose,glycogen and starch.
Cellulose is found in plant cell wall and is digested by ruminents,but not by human beings.Thus ,it acts as roughage in case of human beings.


These are the componants of carbon(C),hydrogen(H),oxygen(O),nitrogen(N) and sulpher(S).These form 15% part of human body.
Their main source are Groundnut,Soyabean,Pulses,fish,etc.
Deficiency of protein caused Kwashiorkor(a disease,in which hands and legs of children get slimmed and the stomach comes out) and Marasmus(a disease,in which muscles of children are loosened.


These are also the componants of carbon(C),hydrogen(H),and oxygen(O).
The main source of fats are ghee,butter,almond,cheese,egg yolk,meat and soyabean
Fats are digested ,by and enzyme called lipase,in the small intestine.
Excess of saturated fats raises the level of blood cholesterol and may cause arteriosclerosis(Hardening of arteries).This may lead to heart attack.
These protects different body parts from injury.
Deficiency of fat results in dry skin and weightlessness.


Roughage is another term for dietary fibre,e.g.,Natural food, Dalia etc.It does not provide energy ,but only help in retaining water in the body.

The Cell


The Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms.The branch of Biology ,which deals with the study of cell,is called Cytology.
Rpbert Hooke coined the term cell,when he saw honey comb-like structure in the section of cork.However ,he only discovered cell wall.The first living cell was discovered by Leeuwenhoek.A typical cell consist of protoplasm,i.e.,nucleus and cytoplasm.

Function of Cell

Cell wall provide shape and rigidity to the cell.Mitochondria is called the power house of a cell,because in it stepwise oxidation of fuel occurs,which results in release of chemical energy.This energy is stored in the form of ATP.
Plastids are present only in plant cells and are of three types - Chloroplasts,leucoplasts and chromoplasts.Chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis as it contains chlorophyll.Chloroplas is called the Kitchen of the cell.
Lysossomes are polymorphic organelles having hydrochloric enzymes .These enzymes function at acidic pH=5.These are sometimes called suicidal bags of the cell.
Nucleus was discovered by Robert Brown.It contains nucleoplasm,nucleolus and chromotin material.Chromatin is controlling centre of cell as it contains chromosomes.

Nucleic Acids

It contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms.These are of two types DNA and RNA

Deoxiribo nucleic Acid(DNA)

It is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.Each nucleotide consist of a nucleoside and a phosphate group,joined together by ester bonds.It has four bases i.e.,adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine.Adenine and guanine are the purine bases ; cytosine and thymine are pyramidine bases.

Ribo Nucleic Acid(RNA)

It is also made up of a long chain of nucleotides.Each nucleotides consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar and a phosphate group .Here thymine is replaced by Uracil(U)


Chromosome is thred-like structure,found in the nucleus.Bead like structure found on chromosome is called genes,which are made up of DNA.Number of pairs of chromosomes :
Human....23 (=46)
Dog....39 (=78)
Monkey....21 (=42)
Onion....8 (=16)

Types of Cell

This are two types

Prokaryotic Cells

This are primitive cell, lacking a nucleus and most of the other cell organelles e,g,,bacteria cell.

Eukaryotic cells

These have nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles.These are present in unicellular and multicellular plant and animal cells.

Differences between plant and animal cell

Plant cell.....Animal cell
It has cell wall (made from cellulose).....Cell wall is usually absent
Plastids are found.....Plastids are usually absent
A big vacuole is present.....Vacuole is absent or very small in size.

Cell division

It is the process,by which a cell increase in number.
It is of two types-Mitosis and Meiosis
1.Mitosis-It occurs in unicellular organism during a sexual reproduction .Each mitosis cell division results in the formation of two daughter cell having number of chromosomes equal to parent cell.
2.Meiosis-It occurs in reproductive division because of the presence of single set of chromosomes.It results in the formation of four daughter cells.Meiosis is a source of new genetic variation.


Introduction :

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organism i.e.,plants and animals.Study of plants is called Botany and study of animals is called Zoology and Botany are collectively called biology.The term 'Biology' was coined by Lamarck and Treviranus.The scientist,who gave his thought for the first time about the life of plants and animals was Aristotle.That's why he is known as the Father of Biology.He is also known as the father of Zoology.Theophrastus is known as Father of Botany.

Characteristics of Living Beings

Respirations,Reproductions,Excretion,movement and tendency to respond outer environment are the important characteristics of living things


The Cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known living organisms.The branch of Biology ,which deals with the study of cell,is called Cytology.
Rpbert Hooke coined the term cell,when he saw honey comb-like structure in the section of cork.However ,he only discovered cell wall.The first living cell was discovered by Leeuwenhoek.A typical cell consist of protoplasm,i.e.,nucleus and cytoplasm.

Function of Cell

Cell wall provide shape and rigidity to the cell.Mitochondria is called the power house of a cell,because in it stepwise oxidation of fuel occurs,which results in release of chemical energy.This energy is stored in the form of ATP.
Plastids are present only in plant cells and are of three types - Chloroplasts,leucoplasts and chromoplasts.Chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis as it contains chlorophyll.Chloroplas is called the Kitchen of the cell.
Lysossomes are polymorphic organelles having hydrochloric enzymes .These enzymes function at acidic pH=5.These are sometimes called suicidal bags of the cell.
Nucleus was discovered by Robert Brown.It contains nucleoplasm,nucleolus and chromotin material.Chromatin is controlling centre of cell as it contains chromosomes.

Nucleic Acids

It contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms.These are of two types DNA and RNA

Deoxiribo nucleic Acid(DNA)

It is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.Each nucleotide consist of a nucleoside and a phosphate group,joined together by ester bonds.It has four bases i.e.,adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine.Adenine and guanine are the purine bases ; cytosine and thymine are pyramidine bases.

Ribo Nucleic Acid(RNA)

It is also made up of a long chain of nucleotides.Each nucleotides consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar and a phosphate group .Here thymine is replaced by Uracil(U)


Chromosome is thred-like structure,found in the nucleus.Bead like structure found on chromosome is called genes,which are made up of DNA.Number of pairs of chromosomes :
Human....23 (=46)
Dog....39 (=78)
Monkey....21 (=42)
Onion....8 (=16)


  • The Cell
  • Biomolecules
  • Vitamins & Minerals
  • Sunday, July 20, 2014

    States in India

    States in India

    States in India

    India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.

  • The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. In the states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive.
  • The system of government in states closely resembles that of the Union. There are 28 states and 7 Union territories in the country. Union Territories are administered by the President through an Administrator appointed by him.
  • From the largest to the smallest, each State / UT of India has a unique demography, history and culture, dress, festival
    s, language etc.
  • List of States in India

    Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Asom or Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnatatka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Megalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttarkhand Uttar Pradesh,Telengana West Bengal

    Union Territories of India

    Andaman & Nicobar Islands India

    Capital-- Port Blair
    Area-- 8.249 sq km
    Population-- 356,152
    Sex Ratio-- 846
    Growth Rate-- 26.94%
    Literacy-- 81.30%
    Districts-- 2
    Languages-- Hindi, Nicobarese, Bengali, Malayalam, Tamil, Telegu

    Important Indian Manuments

    Important Manument in India

    Important Monuments in India

    Name---- Place---- Built by
    Ajanta - Ellora Caves---- Aurangabad---- (Mah.) Gupta rulers
    Aram Bagh---- Agra (UP)---- Babur
    Agra Fort---- Agra (UP)---- Akbar
    Akbar's Mausoleum---- Sikandra (UP)---- Akbar
    Itmod - ud - daula Fort---- Agra (UP)---- Noorjahan
    Anand Bhawan---- Allahabad (UP)---- Motilal Nehru
    Bada Imambara---- Lucknow (UP)---- Asaf-ud-daula
    Bharatpur Fort---- Bharatpur (Raj.)---- Raja Surajmal Singh
    Bibi Ka Maqbara ----Aurangabad (Mah.)---- Aurongzeb
    Char - Minor---- Hyderabad (AP)---- Quli Qutub Shah
    Charar - e - Sharif---- Jammu & Kashmir---- Zainul Abedin
    Chhota Imambara---- Lucknow (UP)---- Muhammad Ali Shah
    Dargah Ajmer---- Sharif Ajmer (Raj.)---- Sultan Shyasuddin
    Dilwara's Jain Temple---- Mount Abu (Raj.)---- Siddharaja
    Deewan - e - Khas---- Agra Fort (UP)---- Shahjahan
    Adhai Din Ka Jhopra ----Ajmer (Raj.)---- Qutubuddin Aibak
    Elephanfa's cave---- Mumbai (Mah.)---- Rashtrakuta rulers
    Fatehpur Sikri---- Agra (UP)---- Akbar
    Ferozshah Kotla---- Delhi---- Ferozshah Tughlaq
    Golghar---- Patna (Bih.)---- British Government
    Gateway of India---- Mumbai (Mah.)---- British Government
    Hauz Khas---- Delhi---- Alauddin Khilji
    Hawa Mahal---- Jaipur (Raj.)---- Maharaja Pratap Singh
    Jama Masjid---- Agra (UP)---- Shahjahan
    Jama Masjid---- Delhi---- Shahjahan
    Jagannath Temple---- Puri (Ori.)---- Anantvarmun Ganga
    Jantar - Mantar---- Delhi---- Sawai Jai Singh
    Jaigarh Fort---- Jaipur (Raj.)---- Sawai Jai Singh
    Jim Corbett Park---- Nainital (Uttar.)---- Sir Malcom Hqilley
    Jodhpur Fort---- Jodhpur (Raj.)---- Rao Jodhoji
    Kanheri's Fort---- Mumbai (Mah.)---- Buddhists
    Khirki Masjid---- Delhi---- Ghyasuddin Tughlaq
    Lai Bagh---- Bangalore (Kar.)---- Hyder Ali
    Lakshmi Narayan Temple---- Delhi---- Birla Family
    Makka Masjid---- Hyderabad (AP)---- Quli Qutub Shah
    Moti Masjid---- Agra Fort (UP)---- Shahjahan
    Moti Masjid---- Delhi---- Fort Aurangzeb
    Nahargarh Fort---- Jaipur (Raj.)---- Sawai Jai Singh
    Nishat Garden---- Srinagar (J & K)---- Asaf Ali
    Parana Qila---- Delhi---- Shershah Suri
    Pathar Ki Masjid---- Patna (Bih.)---- Pervez Shah
    President House---- Delhi---- British Government
    Qutub Minor---- Delhi---- Qutubuddin Aibak
    Red Fort---- Delhi---- Shahjahan
    Safdar Jung Tomb---- Delhi---- Shuja-ud-daula
    Sabarmati Ashram---- Ahmadabad (Guj.)---- Mahatma Gandhi
    Shantiniketan---- West Bengal---- Rabindra Nath Tagore
    Shish Mahal---- Agra (UP)---- Shahjahan
    Shalimar Garden---- Srinagar (J & K)---- Jahangir
    Shershah's Tomb---- Sasaram (Bih.)---- Shershah's son
    Saint George Fort---- Chennai (TN)---- East India Company
    Sati Burj---- Mathura (UP)---- Raja Bhagwan Das
    Sun Temple---- Konark (Ori.)---- Narsimhadeva
    Swarna Mandir (Golden Temple)---- Amritsar (Pun.)---- Guru Ramdas
    Taj Mahal---- Agra (UP)---- Shahjahan
    Vellure Math---- Kolkata (WB)---- Swami Vivekanand
    Victoria Memorial---- Kolkata (WB)---- British Government

    Largest,Longest,Smallest in India

    Largest Longest Highest and Smallest in India

    Largest Longest Highest and Smallest in India

    Longest River---- Ganges
    The Longest Tributary River of India---- Yamuna
    The Longest River of the South---- Godavari
    Highest Mountain Peak---- Godwin Austin (K2)
    Largest Lake (Fresh Water)---- Wular Lake (Kashmir)
    Highest Dam---- Bhakra Dam (Punjab)
    Largest Mosque---- Jama Masjid, Delhi
    Longest Road---- Grand Trunk Road
    State with Longest Coastline---- Gujarat
    Longest Railway Route---- From Jammu to Kanyakumari
    Longest Tunnel---- Jawahar tunnel (Jammu & Kashmir) Longest National Highway---- NH - 7 which runs from Varanasi to Kanyakumari
    Longest Dam---- Hirakud Dam (Orissa)
    Longest River Bridge---- Mahatma Gandhi Setu, Patna
    Longest River---- Ganges
    Largest Populated City---- Mumbai (1.60 crore)
    Largest Museum ----National Museum, Kolkata
    Largest Delta---- Sunderban Delta, W. Bengal
    Largest Dome---- Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur (Karnataka)
    Largest Zoo---- Zoological Gardens, Alipur, Kolkata
    Largest Man - made Lake---- Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar (Rihand Dam)
    Largest Desert---- Thar (Rajasthan)
    Highest Tower---- Pitampura Tower, Delhi
    Smallest State (Area)---- Goa
    Smallest State (Population)---- Sikim
    Highest Waterfall---- Gersoppa waterfall (Karnataka)
    Longest Electric Railway Line---- From Delhi to Kolkata via Patna
    Densest Populated State---- West Bengal
    Largest Cave Temple---- Kailash temple, Ellora (Maharashtra)
    Largest Animal Fair---- Sonepur (Bihar)
    Highest Gateway---- Buland Darwuza, Fatehpur Sikri (Agra)
    Biggest Hotel---- Oberai-Sheraton (Mumbai)
    Largest State (Area)---- Rajasthan
    Largest State (Population)---- Uttar Pradesh
    Place of Heaviest Rainfall---- Mausinram (Meghalaya)
    Largest Corridor---- Rameshwaram temple corridor (Tamil Nadu)
    Largest Cantilever---- Span Bridge Howrah Bridge (Kolkata)
    Largest Forest State---- Madhya Pradesh
    Highest Straight Gravity---- Dam Bhakra Dam
    Longest Railway Platform---- Kharagpur (W. Bengal)
    Largest Stadium---- Salt Lake (Yuva Bharti), Kolkata
    Largest Port Mumbai
    Highest Lake---- Devatal (Garhwal)
    Largest Lake---- (Saline Water) Chilka Lake, Orissa
    Highest Award---- Bharat Ratna
    Highest Gallantry Award---- Paramveer Chakra
    Largest Gurudwara---- Golden Temple, Amritsar
    Deepest River Valley---- Bhagirathi & Alaknanda
    State with Longest Coastline of South India---- Andhra Pradesh
    Longest River which forms estuary---- Narmada
    Largest Church---- Saint Cathedral (Goa)
    Longest Beach---- Marina Beach, Chennai
    Highest Battle Field---- Siachin Glacier
    Highest Airport---- Leh (Laddakh)
    Largest River Island---- Majuli (Brahmaputra River, Assam)
    Largest Planetarium---- Birla Planetarium (Kolkata)

    Indian Towns Associated with Industries

    Indian Towns Associated with Industries

    Indian Towns Associated with Industries

    Town---- State---- Industries

    Ahmedabad---- Gujarat---- Cotton Textiles
    Agra---- U.P---- Leather, Marble, Carpet
    Aligarh---- U.P---- Locks, Cutlery
    Ankleshwar---- Gujarat---- Oil Fields
    Ambernath---- Maharashtra---- Machine Tools

    Amritsar---- Punjab---- Woolen Clothes
    Anand---- Gujarat---- Milk and its Products
    Alwaye---- Kerala---- Fertilizer, Monazite Factory
    Bhilai---- Chhattisgarh---- Steel Plant
    Barauni---- Bihar---- Chemical Fertilizer
    Burnpur---- West Bengal---- Steel Plant
    Bhurkunda---- Jharkhand---- Glass Industries
    Bhagalpur---- Bihar---- Silk industries
    Bhandara---- Maharashtra---- Explosives
    Bhadravati---- Karnataka---- Iron & Steel
    Bongaigaon---- Assam----Petroleum
    Bhadoi---- U.P ----Carpets
    Churk---- M P---- Cement
    Cyberabad---- Andhra Pradesh---- Electronics, Computers, Information technology
    Chitranjan---- West Bengal---- Locomotive
    Kolkata---- West Bengal---- Jute, Leather, Electric goods
    Cochin---- Kerala---- Ship building, coconut oil, rubber
    Calicut---- Kerala ----Coffee, coconut
    Coimbatore---- Tamil Nadu----- Cotton industries
    Dhariwal---- Punjab---- Woolen clothes
    Durgapur---- West Bengal---- Steel
    Digboi---- Assam---- Petroleum
    Delhi---- Delhi---- Textiles, Electronics, D.D.T
    Dalmianagar---- Bihar---- Cement
    Darjeeling---- W. Bengal---- Tea
    Dindigul---- Tamil Nadu---- Cigar, Tobacco
    Frozabad---- M.P ----Bangle works
    Guntur---- Andhra Pradesh---- Cotton industries
    Gwalior---- Madhya Pradesh---- Pottery, Tobacco
    Gomia---- Jharkhand---- Explosives
    Hardwar---- Uttarakhand---- Heavy electricals
    Hatia---- Jharkhand---- Heavy Engineering Corporation
    Haldia---- W. Bengal---- Chemical fertilizer
    Hazira---- Gujarat---- Artificial Rayon
    Jallundhur---- Punjab ----Surgical goods and sports articles
    Jaipur---- Rajasthan ----Cloth Printing, Brass
    Jharia---- Jharkhand ----Coal mines
    Jabalpur----- Madhya---- Pradesh Bidi industry
    Jainakot---- Jammu & Kashmir---- H.M.T watch
    Japla---- Jharkhand---- Cement
    Kanpur ----U.P---- Cotton and Woollen mills, Leather, Sugar
    Katni---- M.P---- Cement
    Korba---- Chattisgarh---- Aluminium factory, Thermal plant
    Koyna----- Maharashtra---- Aluminium factory
    Koyali---- Gujarat---- Petrochemical industries
    Kolar---- Karnataka ----Gold mining centre
    Kota---- Rajasthan---- Atomic power plant
    Kanchipuram---- Tamil---- Nadu Silk clothes
    Karnal---- Haryana ----Dairy product
    Kandla---- Gujarat---- Chemical fertiliser, famous port
    Khetri---- Rajasthan---- Copper industries
    Ludhiana ----Punjab---- Hosiery
    Lucknow---- U.P---- Embroidery work, Chicken work
    Chennai---- Tamil Nadu---- Leather, cigarette, Integral coach factory
    Madurai---- Tamil Nadu---- Cotton and Silk Weaving
    Mirzapur---- U.P---- Carpet, Pottery, Brass industries
    Muradabad---- U P ----Brassware, cutlery
    Mathura---- U.P---- Oil refinery
    Mysore---- Karnataka ----Sandalwood oil, Silk goods
    Meerut---- U.P---- Publication work, Sports goods, Scissors making
    Mumbai---- Maharashtra ----Cinema industries, Cotton textiles
    Modinagar---- U.P---- Nylon thread
    Moorie---- Jharkhand---- Aluminium
    Majhagaon---- Maharashtra---- Ship building
    Nagpur---- Maharashtra---- Cotton mills, Oranges
    Nepanagar---- Madhya---- Pradesh Newsprint
    Nasik---- Maharashtra---- Security Printing Press
    Neyveli---- Tamil Nadu---- Lignite industries
    Nunamati---- Assam---- Oil refineries
    Narora---- U.P ----Atomic Power Plant
    Nangal---- Punjab---- Fertilisers
    Panna---- M.P---- Diamond mining
    Jamshedpur---- Jharkhand---- Iron & Steel, Locomotives, Railway coaches